BIOMECHANICS, REHABILITATION BIOMECHANICS


Orit Braun Benyamin and Yocheved Laufer (Haifa University) ​

After neurological/orthopedic trauma, functional performance needs to be improved by monitoring the load-bearing distribution between the lower extremities. This research focuses on measuring and controlling an active rehabilitation system to enhance functional improvement. As part of a related research study, we are also working on designing an Active Passive Trainer (APT) for physiotherapy treatment of children with cerebral palsy. The research investigates the influence of physiotherapy treatment on the patient through measurable biomechanical parameters. 


Gerry Leisman, Paul Koch (Sinalunga, Italy) and Moshe Kaspi (Industrial Engineering, Ben-Gurion University)

We model the brainstem as two layers of purely excitatory and inhibitory cells, with a time delay in transmission of information between the layers. The response to a localized afferent impulse is a strong function of this inhibitory delay; at first showing increased amplification as the delay increases, but at larger delays showing increased convection away from the impulse location.These features are consistent with the function of the brainstem in regulating attentional levels. And have possible implications for the understanding of higher brain mechanisms. 


COMPUTATIONAL MODELS OF MEMORY AND THOUGHT: DECODING ACTIVITY WAVES
INTO MEANING

Gerry Leisman and Paul Koch (Sinalunga, Italy)

We assume that individual neurons carry information mostly as indistinguishable parts of a multitude.  This “continuum” picture takes many forms in the literature, notably the “groups” posited by Edelman and the theoretical basis for the mathematical description by Wilson and Cowan.  It also postulates the correctness of the holographic theory of Pribram. One can consider first a wave of definite wavelength, determined, by the delay.  Two regions of space separated by an integral number of wavelengths will always be in phase with each other, (i.e. they will both have a high fraction and a low fraction of active cells at the same time.) Because of the regularity, the exact location of the original stimulus will not change this fact.  This reliably reproducible behavior makes this type of wave most suitable as a vehicle for memory recall, i.e. it could serve to reintegrate the distributed stored information postulated by Prideaux. The assumption of “widely distributed” connections in order to explain the synchronization of activity is no longer necessary if we recognize that the amplified wavelengths are always considerably longer than some “mean axonal length”. No matter how it is computed, the mathematics of wave dynamics shows that the favored wavelength always surpasses it. The variable delay controls the frequency, and thus the wavelength, analogously to the control of transmission and reception of radio waves, i.e. it functions as a “tuner “. Assuming the model has some relation to reality, the question is immediately raised as to the relationship of the wavelength to the semantic content of the corresponding memory. Before contending with this problem it is necessary to examine another question: If the waves are so regular and predictably dependent on the delay, how can one account for creativity? The answer lies in the condition for mutual reinforcement of the intra-layer and delayed interlayer signals. The product of frequency and delay is equal to ¼ at the smallest values of T, but the phase condition is also satisfied for ¾, and indeed for any odd multiple of ¼.  All these possibilities are potentially present, but the system picks out the one with the largest amplification (growth rate).  Since the amplification is initially exponential, the wave with the fastest growth soon dominates all others. As the delay increases, the growth rate forfT = ¾ begins to approach that for fT = ¼, and eventually surpasses it.  Then the preferred frequency increases, discontinuously, i.e. another wave begins to dominate.  In the range of delays in which this transition occurs, both waves are present, and there is considerable wave mixing.  Similar transitions occur as the multiplier goes from three to five, and so on. Each of the two waves dominates in a different region of space. The boundary shifts position as T changes, favoring one wave over another, and thus expanding its region of domination.  At the border, the activity can be more or less chaotic.  Where this occurs thus depends on the delay, but the location also is random, since it is measured from the point of the initial disturbance, which is itself random.  Synchronous activation occurs for different regions in an essentially indeterminate way. This might well be a description of original thought.  What remains open, though, is a translation or “decoding” from activity waves to meaning. This is the function of this research. 


COMPUTATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE IN CONNECTOGRAPHY AND TRACTOGRAPHY TO EXPLAIN BRAIN PLASTICITY OF MOTOR AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS

Gerry Leisman, Moshe Kaspi (Industrial Engineering, Ben-Gurion Univ.), Amir Geva (Electrical Engineering, Ben-Gurion Univ. & ElMindA, Herzliya), Calixto Machado (Univ. Medical Sci, Univ. of Havana, Cuba), Robert Melillo (Institute for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences-USA), Mina Gurevich (Inst. for Brain & Rehabilitation Sciences, Nazareth Israel), Abraham Peled (Technion IIT School of Medicine), Anat Grinfeld (Inst. For Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences, Nazareth, Israel), Raed Mualem (Nazareth Academic Institute and Inst. for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences, Nazareth Israel) and Sir Joseph Sergeant (Free University of Amsterdam) 

Studies investigating the development and interruption of inter-regional communication in the brain and nervous system and how that relates to the optimization or efficient/inefficient communication between regions in sensory, motor, and cognitive interactions pre-, during and after interventions and the normal development of these interactions through the lifespan. The natural clinical vehicles for studying such issues include those situations highly associated with functional disconnectivities, a term based on our work in the early 1970’s, that principally include autistic spectrum and other developmental disorders as well as persistent vegetative, minimally conscious and comatose states. The natural consequence of this work in the real world is in neural engineering and rehabilitation for the handicapped.  Specific current areas of investigation include: Optimization of dipole source localization in autistic spectrum disorder (examining coherence of inter-hemispheric function); Optimization of auditory function in developmental disabilities; Optimization of visual feature identification in developmental disabilities; Optimization of motor performance in developmental disabilities; Optimization of motor performance in elite athletes; Optimization of recovery of function for plotting the course of treatment over time in developmental disabilities; Optimization in language acquisition in autistic spectrum disorders; Optimization models of economic resource allocation in providing rehabilitation services for children. 


DIME (DIPLOMATIC, INFORMATION, MILITARY, AND ECONOMIC POWER) EFFECTS MODELING SYSTEM: APPLICATIONS FOR THE MODELING OF THE HUMAN BRAIN

Gerry Leisman and Newton Howard (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

Construction of an analysis framework for estimating the effects of Diplomatic, Informational, Military, and Economic (DIME) activities in the context the brain. We evaluate and recommend a set of candidate models of the flow and evolution of cognition and intention as the starting point for developing a DIME Effects Modeling System (DEMS) for command and control by the brain and nervous system. We identified the needs as: (1) understanding and representing the underlying causality within the population, (2) formulating models that are both sensitive and computable, and (3) validating the predictions of cognitions, intentions, and behaviors by model. 


DISRUPTED AXONAL FIBER CONNECTIVITY AS A MARKER OF IMPAIRED CONSCIOUSNESS STATES

Rafael Rodriguez-Rojas (Brain Imaging Group, International Center for Neurological Restoration, Havana, Cuba & The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy), Karla Batista (Brain Imaging Group, International Center for Neurological Restoration, Havana, Cuba), Yasser Iturria (Neuroimaging Department, Cuban Neuroscience Center, La Habana, Cuba), Calixto Machado (Univ. of the Medical Sciences, Univ. of Havana Cuba), Gerry Leisman (The National Institute for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences-Israel) Robert Melillo (Institute for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences-USA), Mauricio Chinchilla (Neurology Department, Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital, Havana, Cuba), Philip DeFina (Neuroscience, Univ.  Medical Sci. of Havana, Univ. Havana), Maylen Carballo (Brain Imaging Group, International Center for Neurological Restoration, Havana, Cuba) and Juan M. Morales (Brain Imaging Group, International Center for Neurological Restoration, Havana, Cuba) 


Persistent vegetative states (PVS) and locked-in syndrome (LIS) are well-differentiated disorders of consciousness that can be reached after a localized brain injury in the brainstem. The relations of the lesion topography with the impairment in the whole-brain architecture and functional disconnections are poorly understood. We are examining individuals with both PVS and LIS and age-matched healthy volunteers using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Anatomical network is being modeled as a graph whose nodes are represented by 71 brain regions. Inter-region connections were quantified through Anatomical Connection Strength (ACS) and Density (ACD). Complex networks properties such as local and global efficiency and vulnerability were studied. Mass univariate testing was performed at every connection using network based statistic approach. LIS patients’ network show significant differences from controls in the brainstem-thalamus-frontal cortex circuitry, while PVS patients show a widespread disruption of anatomical connectivity in both hemispheres. Patients show a reorganization of network attributes, with decreased global and local efficiency, significantly more pronounced in PVS.  Our results suggest that DTI-based network connectivity combined with graph theory is useful to study the long-range effect of confined injuries and the relationship to the degree of consciousness impairment, underlying PVS and LIS. 


EEG COHERENCE ASSESSMENT OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN: CONNECTOGRAPHY ANALYSES

Gerry Leisman, Calixto Machado and Mario Estévez (Univ. Med. Sci., Univ. Havana Cuba), Robert Melillo (Institute for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences-USA), Rafael Rodríguez-Rojas (International Center for Neurological Restoration Havana, Cuba),  Adrián Hernández (Univ. Med. Sci., Univ. Havana, Cuba) and  Jesús Pérez-Nellar (Hermanos  Ameijeiras  Hospital,  Service  of  Neurology,  Havana, Cuba) 

The project assesses EEG coherence assessment in a group of autistic children, compared to a control group, in three experimental conditions. The autistics demonstrated significant incremental coherence values for all EEG bands and for both hemispheres, compared with controls. Autistics demonstrated significantly higher intra-hemispheric long-range coherence in the left hemisphere compared to control participants. Moreover, autistics did not show significant differences between both hemispheres for the resting control condition. Autistic and control participants demonstrated significantly lower coherence values for the two experimental conditions, cartoon with audio (V-A), and without audio band (VwA), compared to the control condition. No significant differences were found for the control group comparing V-A vs. VwA conditions. Nonetheless, in autistics, the VwA, compared with the V-A condition tended to show lower coherence values in the right hemisphere. Autistics did not show these hemispheric coherence differences in the control condition. We conclude that EEG coherence assessment in the three experimental conditions significantly differentiates autistics from normal control participants, supporting the notion of distinct neural synchronization among different brain areas in autism. In the audio-muted condition autistics demonstrated significantly reduced coherence values in the right hemisphere associated with, we hypothesize, a lack of visual and auditory integration, lateralized to the right hemisphere. 


FORENSIC ERGONOMIC AND REHABILITATION THEORY IN APPLICATION

Orit Braun Benjamin, Gerry Leisman and Anatoly Babchenko (Jerusalem Institute of Technology)

Various projects all relating to the interaction of man-machine in applications relevant to the treatment of decubitus ulcer employing the theory of Alternating Pressure Relief, the early detection of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and acoustic correlation transform applied to infant cry analysis for the early detection of developmental disabilities. 


MOTOR AND COGNITIVE NEUROBEHAVIORAL RELATIONSHIPS IN THE BASAL GANGLIA

Gerry Leisman, Robert Melillo (Institute for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences-USA)


New information about basal ganglia and cerebellar connections with the cerebral cortex has prompted a reevaluation of the role of the basal ganglia in cognition. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allow for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. The properties of neurons within the basal ganglia or cerebellar components of these circuits resemble the properties of neurons within the cortical areas subserved by these loops. For example, neuronal activity within basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement, while neuronal activity within basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with areas of the prefrontal cortex is more related to aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Studies of basal ganglia and cerebellar pathology support this conclusion. Damage to the basal ganglia or cerebellar components of circuits with motor areas of cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage of the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the new anatomical, physiological and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette’s, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as examples of how compromise at different points in the system may yield similar but different clinical results. 


Orit Braun Benjamin, Gerry Leisman, Dana Lorber (Mechanical Engineering O.R.T. Hermelin Academic College) and Robert Melillo (Institute for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences-USA)

Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the common syndrome affecting 3-20% of children and has become a significant public health problem. In previous researches it was revealed, that electric brain activity increases in anticipation of in frontal areas of children with ADHD as compared with non-ADHD children. The frontal lobes are concerned with the planning and execution of movement. These studies aim to investigate the dynamics of inattention, impulsivity and EEG during training of posture stability in those with ADHD and investigate central and biomechanical mechanisms for their correction.  


Gerry Leisman, Calixto Machado (Univ. Medical Sciences, Univ. of Havana) and Robert Melillo (Institute for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences-USA)

Exposure to musical training in childhood has been studied extensively as models of neuroplasticity. The long-term training and continued practice of complex bi-manual motor sequences are highly associated with changes in brain structure and cortical motor maps compared with individuals without such training. We know that the anterior corpus callosum, with fibers connecting frontal motor regions and pre-frontal areas coordinating bimanual activity is larger in musicians who started training prior to age seven than in either controls. Additionally, auditory experiences during early postnatal development shape the functional neurology of auditory cortical representation resulting in increased functional areas of the auditory cortex. The developing brain is far more plastic than the adult brain explaining the results that we see in recovery of function after brain damage in childhood, neuronal connections are being continuously remodeled by experience, enrichment, and by performance on specific and complex movements during motor and cognitive learning. New skill acquisition, present to a much greater degree in childhood is highly associated with structural changes in the intra-cortical and subcortical networks in motor skill training. The relationship between music, visual, and spatial training on brain organization and plasticity are being studied with applications for solutions to the rehabilitation of the brain impaired. 


Gerry Leisman, Orit Braun Benjamin and Robert Melillo (National Institute for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences-Israel)

Many neurological syndromes are associated with pathology of balance and gait. The use of Computerized Dynamic Posturography is common in the practice of Neurology, yet there are no published guidelines or accepted procedures for its use in a Functional Neurology Application. We are developing a reference guide specific to this technology applied to the testing of human balance, vestibular and balance testing, basic clinical evaluation of balance patients, applied to various clinical populations in particular Traumatic Brain Injured and Cerebral Palsied Children. 


HUMAN-ANIMAL NEUROIMMUNOLOGICAL MODELS OF AUTISM

Evan Elliot (Bar-Ilan University School of Medicine, Safed, Israel) Gerry Leisman (The NationalInstitute for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences-Israel)

CONFERENCES

Leisman, G. Functional Connectivities and Re-connectivities Reflect Cognitive Modifiability in Neurorehabilitation. [Invited paper presented at the Second Annual Conference in Rehabilitation  Medicine,  Baltimore  MD,  USA  1-16  July 2014].
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-9096.S1.006

Leisman G. Optimization Models for Quantifying Visual Search Scanpath Efficiency: Measuring Treatment Recovery in Traumatic Brain Injury. [Invited paper presented at the Second Annual Conference in Rehabilitation Medicine, Baltimore MD, USA July 2014].
http://www.conferenceseries.com/speaker/2014/gerry-leisman-the-national-institute-for-brain-and-rehabilitation-sciences-israel-1 

Leisman, G., Gilchriest. J., Rodriguez-Rojas, R., Estevez, M. ,Machado, C.,Kaspi ,M., Melillo, R. A Method for Quantifying Visual Search Scanpath Efficiency in Elucidating Cognitive Status Post Traumatic Brain Injury. [Paper presented IEEE-Israel, Eilat, Israel 2-5 December, 2014].

http://www.eng.tau.ac.il/~ieee/convention2014/Program-IEEE-2014%20final.pdf.

Leisman, G., Batista, K., Carballo, M., Morales, J. M., Iturria, Y.,  Measurement of Axonal Fiber Connectivity in Consciousness Evaluation. [Paper presented IEEE-Israel, Eilat, Israel 2-5 December, 2014].

http://www.eng.tau.ac.il/~ieee/convention2014/Program-IEEE-2014%20final.pdf

Machado, C, Estevez, M, Leisman, G., Melillo, R., Rodríguez, R., DeFina, P., Hernández Pérez Nellar, D.J.  Naranjo, R.,  Chinchilla, MGarófalo, N., Vargas, J., Bentran, C. Análisis Espectral Y De Coherencia Del Eeg En Niños Autistas En Tres Condiciones Experimentales Diferentes Premio Anual de Salud 2014, La Habana; 01/201.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289540444

Leisman, G. The Coincident Decline of Movement and Cognitive Ability: Movement Sciences in the Aid of Public Health Policy Intervention. [Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Pediatric Disease, Disability and Human Development,  20-23 January, 2015, Jerusalem Israel]

http://www.pedchron.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/ICCD-Agenda-09-01-14.pdf

Mualem, R., Leisman, G., Mograbie, S.K. ,Boshnak S. Brain-Based Learning During Preschool: An Underused Window of Opportunity.[Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Pediatric Disease, Disability and Human Development,  20-23 January, 2015, Jerusalem Israel]

http://www.pedchron.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/ICCD-Agenda-09-01-14.pdf

Leisman, G., Braun-Benjamin, O. Symposium on Movement and Thought. International Convention of Psychological Science, 12-14 March, 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]
http://www.psychologicalscience.org/convention/icps_program/search/viewProgram.cfm/Abstract_ID=32771&AbType=1&AbAuthor=&Subject_ID=&Day_ID=all&keyword=

Leisman, G. Thinking, Walking, Talking: The Development of Integratory Brain Function [Paper presented as part of Symposium on Movement and Thought, International Convention of Psychological Science, 12-14 March, 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
http://www.psychologicalscience.org/convention/icps_program/search/viewProgram.cfmAbstract_ID=32771&AbType=1&AbAuthor=&Subject_ID=&Day_ID=all&keyword=

Koch, P. Leisman, G. Cortical Activity Waves are the Physical Carriers of Memory and Thought. Paper presented at the 7th Annual IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Meeting on Neuroengineering. Montpellier, France, 22-24 April 2015] 
https://embs.papercept.net/conferences/conferences/NER15/program/NER15_ContentListWeb_1.html#wect3_18https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275354336_CORTICAL_ACTIVITY_WAVES_ARE_THE_PHYSICAL_CARRIERS_OF_MEMORY_AND_THOUGHT

Leisman, G. Government Policy Implications of a Cognitive Neuroscience  on the Effects of  Movement on Functional Connectivity Plenary presentation, 7th International Symposium on Brain Death and Disorders of Consciousness, 8-11 December 2015, Havana, Cuba
http://www.komabraindeathcuba.com/Submited%20Abstracts%202015.pdf

Leisman, G. Functional Connectivities in the Understanding of the Restoration of Integrative Brain Function [Paper presented 9th World Congress for Neurorehabilitation, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 10-13 May, 2016

Leisman, G. Feedback, Feedforward, Feedup, Feeddown: Translating Basic Neuroscience into the Office Practice International Association of Functional Neurology and Rehabilitation (IAFNR) Annual Conference 4-6 November, 2016, Henderson, Nevada.


Leisman, G. Thinking about Moving? Keynote address, Movement-2017 at Oxford University 7-11 July, 2017 

www.movementis.com
 

REFEREED PAPERS

Leisman, G., Melillo, R., Thum, S., Ransom, M.A., Orlando, M., Tice, C., and Carrick, F. R. The Effect of Hemisphere Specific Remediation Strategies on the Academic Performance Outcome of Children with ADD/ADHD. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. 2010, 22:10, 275-283.
http://www.referenceglobal.com/doi/abs/10.1515/IJAMH.2010.22.2.275?prevSearch=%255Bauthor%253A%2Bleisman%255D&searchHistoryK 

Daubeny, N., Carrick, F. R. Melillo, R. Leisman, G. Effects of Contralateral Extremity Manipulation on Brain Function. International Journal of Disability and Human Development, 2010, 9(4), 269-273.
http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ijdhd.2010.9.issue-4/ijdhd.2010.039/ijdhd.2010.039.xml?format=INT


Leisman, G., Ezra, A., Jacknow, L. Pobre, T., Shah, M. Weiss, L. Ergonomic  Alternating Pressure Relief Seating System for the Rehabilitation of Patients with Decubitus Ulcers. International Journal on Disability and Human Development. 2010, 9(4), 349-356.
http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ijdhd.2010.9.issue-4/ijdhd.2010.042/ijdhd.2010.042.xml?format=INT


Gutiérrez, J. Machado, C., Olivares, A., Hernández, H., Perez, J., Beltrán, C. Leisman, G. Heart Rate Variability Changes Induced by Auditory Stimulation in Persistent Vegetative State. International  Journal  on  Disability  and  Human  Development.  2010;  9(4),  357-362.

http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ijdhd.2010.9.issue-4/ijdhd.2010.041/ijdhd.2010.041.xml?format=INT

Leisman, G. and Melillo, R. Effects of Motor Sequence Training on Attentional Performance in ADHD Children. International Journal on Disability and Human Development. 2010, 9(4), 275-282.
http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ijdhd.2010.9.issue-4/ijdhd.2010.043/ijdhd.2010.043.xml?format=INT

Leisman G, Melillo R, Machado C. Functional Disconnectivities in Autistic Spectrum Individuals Informs Disorders of Consciousness. Medisur 2010, 8(1),76-76.
http://medisur.sld.cu/index.php/medisur/article/view/1130

Leisman, G., and Melillo, R. Functional Disconnectivities in Autistic Spectrum Disorder as a Potent Model for Explaining Disorders of Consciousness and Cognition in the Brain and Nervous System. Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation and Ergonomics, 2011, 1(1), 101-145. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285164561_FUNCTIONAL_DISCONNECTIVITIES_IN_AUTISTIC_SPECTRUM_DISORDER_AS_A_POTENT_MODEL_FOR_EXPLAINING_DISORDERS_OF_CONSCIOUSNESS_AND_COGNITION_IN_THE_BRAIN_AND_NERVOUS_SYSTEM

Machado, C.  and Leisman, G. Towards an Effective Definition of Death and Disorders of Consciousness. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 2009, 20:3, 147-150.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/41449920_Towards_an_Effective_Definition_of_Death_and_Disorders_of_Consciousness


Leisman, G. and Machado, C. Considering Consciousness Clinically. Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation, and Ergonomics, 2011, 1(1), 17-23.
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=21537

Carrick, F.R, Pagnacco, G,, Oggero, E., Sullivan, S., Barton, D., Esposito, S., Leisman, G. and Melillo, R. The Effects of Whole Body Rotations in the Pitch and Yaw Planes on Postural Stability. Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation, and Ergonomics. 2011, 1(2), 167-179. https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=23933

Perez-Nellar J., Machado, C., Scherle, C., Rodríguez, R., Carballo M., Leisman, G., Melillo, R. Very Prominent Intraventricular CSF Pulsation Artifact on Flair MR Images of PVS Patients. Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation, and Ergonomics, 2009, 2:2, 115-120.
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=39335


Leisman, G. Brain Networks, Plasticity, and Functional Connectivities Inform Current Directions in Functional Neurology and Rehabilitation. Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation, and Ergonomics. 2011, 1(2), 315-356.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230634829_BRAIN_NETWORKS_PLASTICITY_AND_FUNCTIONAL_CONNECTIVITIES_INFORM_CURRENT_DIRECTIONS_IN_FUNCTIONAL_NEUROLOGY_AND_REHABILITATION

Machado, C. Estévez, M. Rodríguez, R. Carballo, M. Pérez-Nellar, J. Gutiérrez, J. Fleitas, M. Leisman, G. Are Persistent Vegetative State Patients Isolated from the Outside World? Functional     Neurology,   Rehabilitation,     and     Ergonomics,     2011,     1(2),     357-377. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279515389_Are_persistent_vegetative_state_patients_isolated_from_the_outer_world

Machado C, Estévez M, Carrick F, Melillo R, Leisman G. qEEG may increase the reliability of diagnostic and prognostic procedures in cerebral arterial gas embolism. Clinical Neurophysiology 2012;123(2):225-226.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21784702       

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1388245711004615

Machado, C. , Estevez, M., Rodriguez, R. Carrick, FR, Melillo, R., and Leisman, G. Bilateral N20 Absence in Post-Anoxic Coma: Do You Pay Attention? Clinical Neurophysiology. 2012, 123(1), 1264-1266.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2011.11.008

Leisman, G., Machado, C., Melillo, R. Mualem, R. Intentionality and “Free-Will” from a Neurodevelopmental Perspective. Frontiers of Integrative Neuroscience 2012, 6:36. doi: 10.3389/   fnint.2012.00036   

http://www.frontiersin.org/Integrative_Neuroscience/10.3389/fnint.2012.00036/full

Leisman, G Children’s Language Production: How Cognitive Neuroscience & Industrial Engineering Can Inform Public Education Policy and Practice Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Roundtable. 2012, 2012(1), 1-14.
http://forumonpublicpolicy.com/vol2012.no1/archive/leisman.pdf

Pérez-Nellar, J., Machado, C, Rodriguez-Rojas, R. Estévez, M. Leisman, G., Melillo, R. Carrick F.R. Neuroimaging Findings in Non-Fatal Central Transtentorial Herniation. Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation, and Ergonomics, 2012, 2(2), 251-266.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279515087_Neuroimaging_Findings_in_Non-Fatal_Central_Transtentorial_Herniation

Leisman, G. Auditory, Visual and Spatial Aesthetic and Artistic Training Facilitates Brain Plasticity: The Arts as a Vehicle for Rehabilitation. Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation, and Ergonomics, 2012, 2(3), 251-266.

https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=36803

Jubran, F. and Leisman, G. Intersensory Integration in Functional Neurology: An Engineer's Perspective of Music as an Interventionary Medium. Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation, and Ergonomics, 2012, 2(3), 215-222.
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=36803

Machado-Ferrer, Y, Estevez, M., Machado, C. Hernández-Cruz, Leisman, G., Carrick, F. R., Melillo, R., and Beltrán, C. Heart Rate Variability for Assessing Comatose Patients with Different Glasgow Coma Scale Scores. Clinical Neurophysiology 2012, 123(3), S1388- 2457(12)00630-X. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2012.09.008.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232246203_Heart_rate_variability_for_assessing_comatose_patients_with_different_Glasgow_Coma_Scale_scores

Leisman, G. and Melillo, R. The Basal Ganglia: Motor and Cognitive Relationships in a Clinical Neurobehavioral Context Reviews in the Neurosciences. 2013;24(1):9-25. doi: 10.1515/revneuro-2012-0067.     

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23241666

Koch, P. and Leisman G. Computational Model of Attention Brain Function Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation and Ergonomics. 2012;2(4):353-363.
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=41117&osCsid=1578167af1850a70f1ac579581504a7e1

Leisman, G., Machado, C., Mualem, R. The merging the neurosciences principles with educational practice in the treatment of ADHD: Function specific treatment for rehabilitation. Frontiers of Public Health: Frontiers of Child Health and Human Development. 2013, 1:22. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2013.00022
http://www.frontiersin.org/Journal/Abstract.aspx?ART_DOI=10.3389/fpubh.2013.00022&name=Child_Health_and_Human_Development 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24350191

Machado C, Estévez M, Rodríguez R, Pérez-Nellar J, Chinchilla M, Defina P, Leisman G, Carrick FR, Melillo R, Schiavi A, Gutiérrez J, Carballo M, Machado A,  Olivares A, Pérez-Cruz, N. Zolpidem Arousing Effect in Persistent Vegetative State Patients: Autonomic, EEG  and Behavioral Assessment. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2014;20(26):4185-4202.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24025063

Machado, C., Estevez, M., Leisman, G., Melillo, R., Rodriguez, R., Hernandez, A. Perez-Nellar, J., Naranjo, R., and Chinchilla, M. EEG Coherence Assessment of Autistic Children in Three Different Experimental Conditions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2013, DOI 10.1007/s10803-013-1909-5.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24048514

Howard N. and Leisman G. DIME (Diplomatic, information, military and economic power) effects modeling system: Dual use in brain small-world connectography and rehabilitation. Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation, and Ergonomics, 2013; 3(2-3): 257-274. https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=45010

Rodriguez-Rojas, R., Batista K., Iturria, Y. Machado, C. Chinchilla, M. Carballo, M. Morales JM., De Fina P., and Leisman G. Disrupted axonal fiber connectivity as a marker of impaired consciousness states. Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation and Ergonomics, 2013; 3(2- 3):319-328. https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=45010

Machado, C., Pérez-Nellar, J., Rodríguez_Rojas, R., Estévez, M., DeFina, P.A., Schiavi, A., Leisman, G. Carrick, F.R., Melillo, R., and Chinchilla, M., Unusual Brainstem Twisting Revealed by MRI Tractography in a Patient who Survived a Severe Traumatic Upper Spinal Dislocation. Functional Neurology Rehabilitation, and Ergonomics, 2013, 3;4, 421-422.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279886151_Unusual_brainstem_twisting_revealed_by_RMI_tractography_in_a_patient_who_survived_a_severe_traumatic_upper_spinal_dislocation

Leisman, G. If it is Localization then there is No Development, Education, and Rehabilitation: Neuroeducation Needs to be about Building Networks. Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation, and Ergonomics. 2013:3(2-3):329-340.
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=45010

Estevez, M., Machado, C., Leisman, G., Melillo, R., Machado, A., Hernandez-Cruz, A., Arias, A., Rodriguez-Rojas, R., Carballo, M. EEGConn: A Software Tool for Offline qEEG Analysis, Including Spectral Univariate and Bivariate Processes and Linear and Non-Linear Indices of Brian Connectivity in Autistic Spectrum Disorder. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development. 2013; 6(4): 427.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280447013_Eegconn_A_Software_Tool_for_Offline_qEEG_Analysis_Including_Spectral_Univariate_and_Bivariate_Processes_and_Linear_and_Non-Linear_Indices_of_Brain_Connectivity_in_Autistic_Spectrum_Disorder

Jammalieh, J., Mualem, R., Leisman, G. Clinical Effects of Physiological Rhythms in Premature Infants. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development. 2013; 6(4): 470.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280598761_Clinical_effects_of_the_development_of_physiological_rhythms_in_premature_infants

Leisman, G. Advances in Cognitive Neuroscience and Optimization Can Inform the Rehabilitation Process in Developmental Language Difficulties. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development. 2013; 6(4): 484.
http://search.proquest.com/openview/d1cebb84abcbd7732eee18958e500f66/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=2034871


Leisman, G.  Functional Connectivities in  the  Postnatal  Development  of Consciousness. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development. 2013;6(4):485.

https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=43824

Leisman, G., Melillo, R., Machado, C. Rodriguez-Rojas, R., Batista, K., Carballa, M., Mualem, R. Functional Disconnectivities in Individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development. 2013; 6(4): 486.
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=43824

Machado, C., Estevez, M., Leisman, G., Melillo, R., Machado, A., Hernanandez-Cruz, A., Arias, A., Rodriguez-Rojas, R., Carballo, M. Exploration of Resting Brain Connectivity Using Linear Coherence Measures in the Autistic Spectrum Disorder. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development. 2013; 6(4):510.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280447150_Exploration_of_Resting_Brain_Connectivity_Using_Linear_Coherence_Measures_in_the_Autistic_Spectrum_Disorder


Machado, C. Estevez, M., Melillo, R., Leisman, G., Carrick, R., Machado, A., Hernandez-Cruz, A., Arias, A., Rodriguez-Rojas, R., Carballo, M., Quantitative Resting EEG in the Autistic Spectrum Disorder. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development. 2013; 6(4):511.   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280113285_Quantitative_resting_EEG_in_the_autistic_spectrum_disorder

Rodriguez-Rojas, R., Batista, K., Carballo, M., Iturria, Y., Sanabria, G., Machado, C., Leisman, G., Estevez, M., Melillo, R. Anatomical and Topological Connectivity Reveal Different Attributes of Disrupted Small-World Networks in Autistic Children. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development. 2013; 6(4):551.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280447239_Anatomical_and_Topological_Connectivity_Reveal_Different_Attributes_of_Disrupted_Small-World_Networks_in_Autistic_Children

Leisman, G., Braun-Benjamin, O., Melillo, R. Cognitive-Motor Interactions of the Basal Ganglia in Development. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2014, 8:16. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2014.00016. [Cross-referenced in Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience.
http://www.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fnsys.2014.00016/abstract

http://www.frontiersin.org/computational_neuroscience/researchtopics/Basal_Ganglia_XI_-_Proceedings/1118

Leisman, G. Functional Connectivities and Re-connectivities Reflect Cognitive Modifiability in Neurorehabilitation. International    Journal    of   Rehabilitation.   2014, 2:4,54-55.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-9096.S1.006

Leisman, G. Optimization Models for Quantifying Visual Search Scanpath Efficiency: Measuring Treatment Recovery in Traumatic Brain Injury. International Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2014, 2:4, 43-45. (http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-9096.S1.006

http://www.omicsonline.org/2329-9096/2329-9096.S1.006-021.pdf

Machado, C., Estevez, M., Leisman, G., Melillo, R., Rodriguez, R., Hernandez, A. Perez-Nellar, J., Naranjo, R., and Chinchilla, M. EEG Coherence Assessment of Autistic Children in Three Different Experimental Conditions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2015, 45:406-424 DOI 10.1007/s10803-013-1909-5.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-013-1909-5#page-1     

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24048514

Leisman, G. and Melillo, R. The Plasticity of Brain Networks as a Basis for a Science of Nervous System Rehabilitation. International Journal of Neurorehabilitation. 2015, 2:2, 155. doi:10.4172/2376-0281.1000155
http://www.omicsgroup.org/journals/the-plasticity-of-brain-networks-as-a-basis-for-a-science-of-nervous-system-rehabilitation-2376-0281-1000155.pdf

Machado C., Rodríguez, R., Estévez, M., Leisman, G., Chinchilla, M., Melillo, R. Electrophysiologic and fMRI Anatomic and Functional Connectivity Relationships in Autistic Children During Three Different Experimental Conditions. Brain Connectivity. 2015,5:8, 487-496.  doi:10.1089/brain.2014.0335
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26050707

http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/pdf/10.1089/brain.2014.0335

Leisman, G., Moustafa, A. Thinking about action: Integration of Functional Connections in Movement and Cognition. Frontiers in Pediatrics. 2016.
http://journal.frontiersin.org/researchtopic/3369/thinking-about-action-integration-of-functional-connections-in-movement-and-cognition

Estévez, M., Machado C., Leisman, G., Hernández-Cruz, A., Estévez-Hernández, T., Arias- Morales, A. Machado, A., Montes-Brown, J. Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability. International Journal of Disability and Human Development. DOI: 10.1515/ijdhd-2014-0025, April 2015
http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ijdhd.ahead-of-print/ijdhd-2014-0025/ijdhd-2014-0025.xml?format=INT

Leisman, G., Mualem, R., Mougrabi, S.K. The Neurological Development of the Child with Educational Enrichment in Mind. Psicología Educativa. 2015. doi: 10.1016 / j.pse.2015.08.006

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1135755X15000226

Leisman, G., Dorta-Contreras, A.J., Machado, C. International Cooperation with Cuban Science: Research on Connectivities Brings Advances in Functional Brain Science at the Highest Levels. Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation and Ergonomics, 2015, 5(3), [In Press]

Mualem, R., Leisman, G., Mograbie, K.K., and Boshnak, S. Brain-Based Learning During Preschool: An Underused Window of Opportunity. International Journal of Child Health and Disability. 2015 DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1079.4961
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280598501_Brain-Based_Learning_During_Preschool_An_Underused_Window_Of_Opportunity


Leisman, G. The Coincident Decline of Movement and Cognitive Ability: Movement Sciences in the Aid of Public Health Policy Intervention. International Journal of Child Health and Disability. 2015 [In press]

Leisman, G. Thinking, Walking, Talking: The Development of Integratory Brain Function. Frontiers in Public Health: Child Health and Human Development, 2015 [In Press].

Estévez-Báez, M., Machado, C., Leisman, G. Brown-Martínez, M., Jas-García, J.D., Machado-García, A., Montes- Brown, J., Carricarte-Naranjo, C.  A Procedure to Correct the Effect of Heart Rate on Heart Rate Variability Indices: Description and Assessment. International Journal of Disability and Human Development. 2015
http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ijdhd.ahead-of-print/ijdhd-2015-0014/ijdhd-2015-0014.xml?format=INT


Rosner, A.L., Leisman, G. Gilchriest, J. Charles E., Keschner, M.G. Minond, M. Reliability and Validity of Therapy Localization as Determined from Multiple Examiners and Instrumentation. Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation and Ergonomics, 2015, 5(3) [In Press]



CHAPTERS IN BOOKS AND TEXTS

Melillo, R. and Leisman, G. Neurobehavioral Disorders of Childhood: An Evolutionary Perspective. New York, NY Springer Science. 2010 [paperback] [ISBN 978-1- 4419-1232-9]

http://www.worldcat.org/title/neurobehavioral-disorders-of-childhood-an-evolutionary-perspective/oclc/570597003

Leisman, G and Melillo, R. The Development of the Frontal Lobes in Infancy and Childhood: Asymmetry and the Nature of Temperament and Adjustment. In: Cavanna, A.E. (Ed.) Frontal Lobe: Anatomy, Functions and Injuries. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers, 2012.
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=33647&osCsid=ca12dd85a94460fd325d2daa3dbcf2d4

Leisman, G. Melillo, R. The Basal Ganglia: Motor and Cognitive Relationships in a Clinical Neurobehavioral Context In: E. Franz (Ed) Basal Ganglia, Rijeka, Croatia: InTech, 2012. [ISBN 980-953-307-193-5]
http://www.intechopen.com/booksprocess/aboutthebook/chapter/78485/book/2604

Leisman, G., Melillo, R., Mualem, R., Machado, C. The effect of music training and production on functional brain organization and cerebral asymmetry. In: Art, Science and Technology. Tatyana Kravchuk, Alec Groysman, Celestino Soddu,  Enrica Colabella, Gerry Leisman (Eds).] Mialno, Italy; Domus Argenia Publisher, 2012, pp. 133-139. [ISBN: 978-88-96610-24-4]

www.artscience-ebookshop.com/1stAST_proceedings.pdf

Leisman, G., Melillo, R., Carrick, F.R. Clinical Motor and Cognitive Neurobehavioral Relationships in the Basal Ganglia. Basal Ganglia - An Integrative View. Fernando A. F. A. Barrios Bauer, C. (Eds.). Rijeka, Croatia: Intech, 2012, pp. 1-30. [ISBN 978-953-51-0918-1]
http://www.intechopen.com/books/basal-ganglia-an-integrative-view/clinical-motor-and-cognitive-neurobehavioral-relationships-in-the-basal-ganglia

Leisman, G. Optimization Methodology and Functional Connectivities Inform the Cognitive Modifiability in the Rehabilitation of Developmental Language Difficulties. Cognitive Modifiability. Bologna, Italia: Medimond s.r.l. 2013.

http://www.medimond.com/ebook/Q602.pdf

Estevez, M., Machado, C., Leisman, G., Melillo, R., Machado, A., Hernandez-Cruz, A., Arias, A., Rodriguez-Rojas, R., Carballo, M. EEGConn: A Software Tool for Offline qEEG Analysis, Including Spectral Univariate and Bivariate Processes and Linear and Non-Linear Indices of Brian Connectivity in Autistic Spectrum Disorder.  Chronic Disease and Disability in Childhood. Haupaugue, NY: Nova Scientific, 2013, p. 65.
http://www.abebooks.com/Chronic-Disease-Disability-Childhood-Merrick-Joav/12059209448/bd

Jammalieh, J., Mualem, R., Leisman, G. Clinical Effects of Physiological Rhythms in Premature Infants. Chronic Disease and Disability in Childhood. Haupaugue, NY: Nova Scientific, 2013, p. 109.

http://www.abebooks.com/Chronic-Disease-Disability-Childhood-Merrick-Joav/12059209448/bd

Leisman, G. Advances in Cognitive Neuroscience and Optimization Can Inform The Rehabilitation Process in Developmental Language Difficulties. Chronic Disease and Disability in Childhood. Haupaugue, NY: Nova Scientific, 2013, p. 123.
http://www.abebooks.com/Chronic-Disease-Disability-Childhood-Merrick-Joav/12059209448/bd

Leisman, G. Functional Connectivities in the Postnatal Development of Consciousness. Chronic Disease and Disability in Childhood. Haupaugue, NY: Nova Scientific, 2013, p. 124.
http://www.abebooks.com/Chronic-Disease-Disability-Childhood-Merrick-Joav/12059209448/bd

Machado, C., Estevez, M., Leisman, G., Melillo, R., Machado, A., Hernanandez-Cruz, A., Arias, A., Rodriguez-Rojas, R., Carballo, M. Exploration of Resting Brain Connectivity Using Linear Coherence Measures in the Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Chronic Disease and Disability in Childhood. Haupaugue, NY: Nova Scientific, 2013, p. 149.
http://www.abebooks.com/Chronic-Disease-Disability-Childhood-Merrick-Joav/12059209448/bd

Machado, C. Estevez, M., Melillo, R., Leisman, G., Carrick, R., Machado, A., Hernandez-Cruz, A., Arias, A., Rodriguez-Rojas, R., Carballo, M., Quantitative Resting EEG in the Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Chronic Disease and Disability in Childhood. Haupaugue, NY: Nova Scientific, 2013, p. 150.
http://www.abebooks.com/Chronic-Disease-Disability-Childhood-Merrick-Joav/12059209448/bd

Melillo, R. and Leisman, G. Functional Brain Imbalance and Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Olfman, S (Ed.) The Science and Pseudoscience of Children's Mental Illness: Cutting Edge Research and Practice. Childhood in America Book Series. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2015, pp. 65-91. 

http://www.abc-clio.com/Praeger/product.aspx?pc=A4219C

Leisman, G., Rodriguez-Rojas, R. Batista, K, Carballo, M Morales, J. M., Iturria, Y., Machado, C. Measurement of Axonal Fiber Connectivity in Consciousness Evaluation. Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 28th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel, IEEE: Minneapolis, MN, 2014. IEEE Cat. No: CFP14417-CDR; ISBN: 978-1-4799-5987-7; DOI: 10.13140/2.1.4845.7289
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269404631_Measurement_of_Axonal_Fiber_Connectivity_in_Consciousness_Evaluation

Koch, P and Leisman, G. Cortical Activity Waves are the Physical Carriers of Memory and Thought. Neural Computation. IEEE/EMBS, Minneapolis MN, 2015.
http://emb.citengine.com/event/ner-2015/author?authorID=12426

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gerry_Leisman/publications

Leisman, G., Melillo, R., Machado, C. Intentionality and “Free-Will” from a Neurodevelopmental Perspective. In: Santrock, J. (Ed.) To be used in connection with: A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development Plymouth, MA; McGraw-Hill Education, 2015 (ISBN-13: 978-0078035500 ). http://www.contentbookstore.com/book/9781259656897

Leisman, G., Braun-Benjamin, O. and Melillo, R. Cognitive-motor Interactions of the Basal-Ganglia in Development. In: Moustafa, A. A., Korngreen, A. A., Bar-Gad, I, Bergman, H. Basal-Ganglia: Physiological, Behavioral, and Computational Studies. Lausanne, Switzerland, Frontiers Media SA, 2014, pp. 389-406 (ISBN: 978-2-88919-388-2) DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-338-2
https://books.google.co.il/books?id=2F3XCQAAQBAJ&pg=PA389&lpg=PA389&dq=gerry+leisman&source=bl&ots=5pF1-x7DE7&sig=Qe3ROJJlpECnqPgALMhwfzll9u8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjt4cP-wPvJAhWL1RoKHdQOCFc4KBDoAQhBMAg#v=onepage&q=gerry%20leisman&f=false

Rodríguez-Rojas, R., Machado, C., Batista, K., Carballo M., Leisman, G. Neuroimages in Autism. In: Robinson-Agramonte, M.  Translational Approaches to Autism Spectrum Disorder. New York, NY: Springer, 2015, pp. 95-117. (ISBN: 978-3-319-16320-8)
http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319163208#aboutBook

http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-16321-5_6

Leisman, G.  Cognitive Rehabilitation in Developmental Disabilities. In: S. Misciagna (Ed.). Handbook of Cognitive Rehabilitation. Secaucus, NJ: Austin Press, 2015.

http://austinpublishinggroup.org/ebooks/handbook-cognitive-rehabilitation-volume-1/index.php

Leisman, G. and Moustafa, A. (Eds.) Thinking about Action: Integration of Functional Connections in Movement and Cognition. Frontiers in Public Health; Child Health and Human Development. Lauasane, Switzerland, Frontiers, 2016. [In Press]
http://www.frontiersin.org/Child_Health_and_Human_Development/researchtopics/Thinking_about_Action_Integrat_1/3369

Vojdani, A. Nova Series in Functional Neurology. Vol. 1.  Neuroimmunity and the Brain-Gut Connection. Leisman, G. and Merrick, J. (Series Eds.). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers. 2016.
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=56306&osCsid=42666102c643021c47b41e653e7fb66f

Leisman, G. Neuroimmunity. In: A. Vojdani. Neuroimmunity and the Brain-Gut Connection. Leisman, G. and Merrick, J. (Eds.). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers. 2016 [In Press].
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=56306&osCsid=42666102c643021c47b41e653e7fb66f

Leisman, G. The coincident decline of movement and cognitive ability. Movement sciences in the aid of public policy intervention. In: J. Merrick (Ed.). Disability, Chronic Disease and Human Development. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers. 2015, pp. 97-98.
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=55227&osCsid=6de28dbcde62a15b812faba057064716

Mualem, R., Leisman, G., Mograbie, S.K., and Boshnak, S. Brain-based learning during pre-school: An underused window of opportunity. In: J. Merrick (Ed.). Disability, Chronic Disease and Human Development. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers. 2015, pp. 56-57.
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=55227&osCsid=6de28dbcde62a15b812faba057064716

Leisman, G., and Merrick J. (Ed.) Considering Consciousness Clinically. Nova Series in Functional Neurology. Vol. 3. Leisman, G. and Merrick, J. (Series Eds.) Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers. 2016 [In Press].

https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=56691

Leisman, G., Machado, C., and Merrick, J. Considering Consciousness Clinically. In: Leisman, G., and Merrick J. (Eds.) Considering Consciousness Clinically. Nova Series in Functional Neurology. Vol. 3. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers. 2016 [In Press].
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=56691

Leisman, G., and Koch, P. Networks of conscious experience: Computational neuroscience in understanding life, death and consciousness. In: Leisman, G., and Merrick J. (Eds.) Considering Consciousness Clinically. Nova Series in Functional Neurology. Vol. 3. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers. 2016 [In Press].

https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=56691

Rodriguez-Rojas, R. Batista, K., Iturria, Y., Machado, C., Leisman, G., Chinchilla, M., DeFina, P., Carballo, M., and Morales, J.M. Disrupted axonal fiber connectivity as a marker of impaired consciousness states. In: Leisman, G., and Merrick J. (Eds.) Considering Consciousness Clinically. Nova Series in Functional Neurology. Vol. 3. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers. 2016 [In Press]. https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=56691

Machado, C., Estévez, M., Rodríguez-Rojas R., Carballo, M., Pérez-Nellar, J., Gutiérrez, J., Fleitas, M.,  and Leisman, G.,  Vegetative state and the outer world. In: Leisman, G., and Merrick J. (Eds.) Considering Consciousness Clinically. Nova Series in Functional Neurology. Vol. 3. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers. 2016 [In Press].
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=56691

Perez-Nellar, J., Machado, C., Scherle C., Rodríguez, R., Carballo, M., Leisman, G., and Melillo, R. Persistant vegetative state: Ventricular CSF pulsation artifact. In: Leisman, G., and Merrick J. (Eds.) Considering Consciousness Clinically. Nova Series in Functional Neurology. Vol. 3. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers. 2016 [In Press].
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=56691

Perez-Nellar, J., Machado, C., Scherle C., Rodríguez, R., Carballo, M., Leisman, G., and Melillo, R. Persistent vegetative state: Ventricular CSF pulsation artifact. In: Leisman, G., and Merrick J. (Eds.) Considering Consciousness Clinically. Nova Series in Functional Neurology. Vol. 3. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers. 2016 [In Press].
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=56691

Leisman, G. Neuroplasticity in Learning and Rehabilitation. Nova Series in Functional Neurology. Vol. 2. Leisman, G. and Merrick, J. (Series Eds.) Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers. 2016 [In Press].

https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=56789

Leisman, G. Plasticity and Functional Connectivities in Rehabilitation. In: Leisman, G. and Merrick, J. (Series Eds.) Neuroplasticity in Learning and Rehabilitation. Nova Series in Functional Neurology. Vol. 2. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers. 2016 [In Press]. https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=56789

Leisman, G. and Merrick, J. Neuroplasticity in Learning and Rehabilitation In: Leisman, G. and Merrick, J. (Eds.) Neuroplasticity in Learning and Rehabilitation. Nova Series in Functional Neurology. Vol. 2. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers. 2016 [In Press]. https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=56789

Leisman, G. Neuroeducational networks. In: Leisman, G. and Merrick, J. (Eds.) Neuroplasticity in Learning and Rehabilitation. Nova Series in Functional Neurology. Vol. 2. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers. 2016 [In Press]. https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=56789

Leisman, G. Auditory, visual, spatial aesthetic and artistic training facilitates brain plasticity. In: Leisman, G. and Merrick, J. (Eds.) Neuroplasticity in Learning and Rehabilitation. Nova Series in Functional Neurology. Vol. 2. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific Publishers. 2016 [In Press]. https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=56306&osCsid=42666102c643021c47b41e653e7fb66f



ACTIVE PROJECTS AT THE: THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR BRAIN AND REHABILITATION SCIENCES

Research